Liquid Dynamics
Pulsation Analysis, Diagnostics, Prediction by Software
Pipeline and Pump user Problem -

Pulsation Analysis, Diagnostics, Prediction by Software

LIQUID DYNAMICS Ltd. offer Pulsation / Vibraton and Shock - Analysis & Diagnostics + Software Models
Please call toll free USA 1-888-326-7377 WE HAVE PEOPLE - Not voice mail. --44-161-480-9625 UK
Fluid Flow Control animations by Liquid Dynamics.

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Head loss, surge
Friction losses
Volume inefficiency
Velocity jump shock
Frequency vs. Pipe ID


LDi Catalog Printable PDF 43, 44

ADD FRICTION from system flow resistance TO "A.H." figure
Also known as "Viscous drag" "scrubbing action" "Rotary flow" "Reynolds effect".

Pipe Fitting Component
Round the corner of a Tee
Past a side opening of a Tee
Back into line from a side opening in a Tee
Rounded corner 90° elbow (Long Rad. or L.R.90)
Abrupt 90° elbow ("hard" 90 or Machined "L")
Gentle 45° elbow (Bends & or "5D" 90)
Effective Length of Pipe System
Leff := L+(0.0667xDxT1)+(0.0209xDxT2)+(0.0667xDxT3)+(0.0327xDxE1)+(0.0681xDxE2)+(0.0144xDxE3)
Figures applied for E and T are averages from tests
Phone USA 910.270.2737
PO Box 506 Hampstead, NC 28443 USA
UK (for EC) --44(0)161-480-9625
PO Box 47, Stockport, UK SK3-OLH


Liquid Dynamics International provides pipeline and pump user problem analysis, diagnostics, prediction by software, pulsation analysis, piping system analysis, and piping system simulation. For water hammer and shock solutions pulsation dampening and shock alleviating devices can be obtained from our associate websites:

PulseGuard Inc., and Ltd. for further information about pulsation dampeners / pulsation dampers. - Pulsation Dampener - Pulsation Dampeners - Pulsation Dampers
PulseGuard für Deutschland - Pulsationsdämpfer and to find large gas bag vessels, jumbo bladders, float separator / big bellows type pipeline shock attenuators and expansion / contraction volume compensators, surge alleviators, and shock alleviators. - Surge Alleviators - Shock Alleviators and for information about energy saving in pumping systems, standby emergency power, safety shutdown systems, hydraulic accumulators, and hydropneumatic accumulators. - Hydraulic Accumulators - Hydropneumatic Accumulators to find protection against excess flow. Guard against toxic spills when pipes burst, guard against gushers and fluid loss when hoses split, Flow-Guard guards against excess flow floods with flow fuses and breather bags
Flow-Guard - Flow Fuses and Breather Bags

Liquid Dynamics